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Biomass Research & Development Initiative 4th Qtr 2009 Newsletter

Monday, November 23, 2009



Bioamss Initiative Newsletter 


Feature Article

Fourth Quarter, 2009

DOE Selects Biomass Feedstock Logistics Projects to Receive up to $21 Million in Funding

by Kristen Johnson, DOE Biomass Program

and Jaime Redick, BCS, Incorporated


A thriving domestic biofuels industry will require not only biomass growers and processing facilities, but also the infrastructure to connect the two. On August 31, 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of the Biomass Program (OBP) announced five industry- and university-led projects that will receive up to $21 million in funding to address this critical link. These feedstock logistics projects will help develop a supply system that can transport large quantities of feedstocks from growers to biorefineries for conversion to fuels, power, and bioproducts.


This is the first competitive solicitation that the OBP Feedstock Platform has been able to run in several years. It is the first time OBP has formally partnered with industrial equipment manufacturers with the purpose of developing feedstock-handling systems that will allow high-tonnage biomass feedstocks to be delivered to the biorefinery on a cost-competitive basis.


The projects will address challenges associated with all aspects of feedstock logistics infrastructureâ€"harvesting, collection, preprocessing, transport, and storage. For example, AGCO Corporation in Duluth, Georgia, will work on a comprehensive system that will supply feedstocks to several biorefineries located in Iowa, Kansas, and Texas. “This project will definitively demonstrate on an industrial scale the methods and costs of feedstock procurement, storage, transport, and preprocessing to complete DOE’s understanding of the production of low-cost and perpetually renewable Bio-energy and Bio-fuels for the American public,” explains Bob Matousek, manager of Crop Harvesting R&D Engineering for AGCO. AGCO will seek to demonstrate the viability of the densified, large square bale as a least-cost, near-term means for supplying high-tonnage biomass feedstocks to cellulosic biofuel processors.


Auburn University in Auburn, Alabama, will work with leading producers of forest biomass for energy in Alabama to design and demonstrate a high-productivity system to harvest, process, and transport woody biomass from southern pine plantations. Specific project objectives include improving tree-length harvesting machines for energy plantations; configuring a high-productivity, lowest-cost harvesting and transportation system for biomass; and demonstrating (at full industrial scale) the performance of their harvesting, storage, preprocessing, and transportation system.


FDC Enterprises of Columbus, Ohio, will primarily target Abengoa Bioenergy’s cellulosic biorefinery, which is currently under development in Hugoton, Kansas. Its project plan is to complete the design, fabrication, and demonstration of three new types of innovative harvest- and biomass-handling machines, including a single-pass mowing and baling operation, a bale-picking truck, and a self-loading trailer.


Genera Energy, LLC of Knoxville, Tennessee, will supply low-moisture switchgrass with an efficient bulk-format system that maximizes automated conveyance and handling. The project aims to achieve an overall process where switchgrass is dry-chopped into bulk format on the farm, hauled to a nearby satellite location, stored in a protective facility, bulk-compacted into trailers, and efficiently hauled 50 miles for unloading at the handling unit of the biorefinery.


The SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry of Syracuse, New York, plans to build on existing collaborative efforts among project partners. They intend to develop, test, and deploy a single-pass cut-and-chip harvester combined with a handling, transportation, and storage system effective in a range of different short-rotation wood crop (SRWC) production systems throughout North America. The system aims to reduce the costs associated with harvesting and transportation, provide consistent quality material to meet end-user specifications, improve environmental attributes, and accelerate the deployment of SRWC.


These projects will benefit farmers and agricultural equipment companies interested in cost-effectively and efficiently harvesting and supplying biomass feedstocks for a commercial biobased industry. The end-users of those biomass resources will also benefit from greater fuel, power, or product yields. The regionally diverse selections and consortium approach (each project includes a major equipment manufacturer, and may also include universities, local biomass producers, and national laboratories) should ensure that positive economic impacts are felt throughout the local economies in locations in which projects were selected.


“I am optimistic that this research will reinvigorate agricultural economies by creating jobs in the emerging Bioenergy industry, and contribute to keeping America's energy future secure," explains Richard Hess, manager of biomass program technology at Idaho National Laboratory. Not only will these projects touch various communities, but they will also help overcome logistical hurdles that will pave the way for more farmers and equipment manufacturing companies to take part in a growing industry. They represent an important step forward in achieving a thriving domestic biofuels industry that will both create jobs and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil.




An AGCO swather harvests sorghum, an energy crop that can be converted into biofuel (photo courtesy of Idaho National Laboratory).


For more information, contact Sam Tagore, OBP Lead for Feedstock Logistics, (202) 586-9210, or

Biomass Spotlight: Alabama


A state with over 4.5 million residents, Alabama consumes more than 2 billion gallons of gasoline and 680 million gallons of diesel a year.  In 2005, Alabama had the potential capability to produce 591 million gallons of ethanol from cellulosic biomass.  Currently, Alabama is home to two E85 retail stations, one biodiesel station, and six biodiesel production facilities (see Table 1 for more statistics on Alabama’s current biofuels production). 


Table 1. Alabama Biomass Sector Statistics

Current Situation in Alabama

Gasoline Use

2,404 million gallons (MG)

Diesel Use

683 MG

Total Cellulosic Biomass

9.3 million dry Tons (T)

Total Crop Biomass

0.3 million dry T

E85 Stations


Biodiesel Stations


Ethanol Plants


Ethanol Production Capacity

0 MG

Biodiesel Plants


Biodiesel Production Capacity

175 MG

Potential Production in Alabama (2009)

Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass

629 MG

% Corn/Sorghum Used for Ethanol

40 MG

Ethanol from Corn and Sorghum (Current)

13 MG

Total Ethanol

642 MG

Biodiesel from Oil Seeds (Current)

37 MG

Petroleum Displacement Result

Gasoline Use Replaced by Ethanol


Diesel Use Replaced by Biodiesel


Co-Product Production


2,201 GWh

Animal Feed

40.3 thousand T


Alabama is expanding its production capacity of biofuelsâ€"especially biodieselâ€"in Huntsville as well as in Monroe and Covington Counties (see Figure 1); however, its main population centers (Montgomery, Birmingham, and Mobile) lack the refueling stations to deal with the existing renewable-fuel-capable vehicles (see Figure 2).



Figure 1. Potential production of biofuels in Alabama based on biomass production and biorefineries



Figure 2. Potential use of biofuels in Alabama based on the number of flexible fuel vehicle registrations per zip code

Heavily forested, Alabama lies in the middle of the United States’ wood-rich Southeast and is using biomass for heat and power as wellâ€"the state recently instituted a tax deduction for wood-burning heating systems.  The statute allows taxpayers to deduct the cost and installation of a wood-burning heating system from their total taxes.  It is intended to encourage residents to consume more wood and less gas and electricity.  The tax deduction only applies when converting gas or electric heating systems into wood-burning heating systems.


To encourage the installation of new approved biomass-related projects, there currently exists a $75,000 interest subsidy payment available through the state’s Biomass Energy Program.  In addition to loan help, technical assistance is also available. Industrial, commercial, and institutional facilities; agricultural property owners; and city, county, and state government entities are eligible.  In order to qualify for this program, loans must already be obtained and repayment information must be submitted to the sponsoring entity: Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs.  This program will promote landfill gas and wood waste as potential sources of energy for industrial processes and other uses.  The interest rates on loans should be no greater than 2 percent above the prime rate.


A number of other state-funded programs exist to promote the use of biomass in Alabama.  There are quality standards for alternative fuels sold in the state, protecting consumers, as well as the Alabama Alternative Fuels Research and Development Fund to which taxpayers can contribute.   There is also a tax credit available for companies that invest in the development of biofuel production sites.  The credit is available for up to 20 years for 5 percent of the capital costs of the project.   Another state incentive allows income received by the Alabama Research Alliance, which conducts scientific research and development related to biofuels, to be used to support research and development programs.   Finally, there is the Alabama Green Fleets Policy, which will set a guideline for obtaining state fleet vehicles based on fuel economy and life cycle costing.  Standards will increase each year based on vehicle type and require that fleets be operated in a sustainable manner.


Alabama has been considered an oil state due to its proximity to Texas and the offshore rigs in Louisiana.  Legislators, entrepreneurs, and researchers, however, are making a huge effort to reduce the state’s oil dependence and convert to biobased energy sources.



. Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency. Wood-Burning Heating System Deduction. Accessed July 21, 2009.

. Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency. Biomass Energy Program. Accessed July 21, 2009.

. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center. State Assessment for Biomass Resources: Alabama Potential Biofuel Production. Accessed July 21, 2009.

. Id.

. Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries. Center For Alternative Fuels. Accessed July 21, 2009.

. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center. Alabama E85 Laws and Incentives. Accessed July 21, 2009.

. Id.

. Id.

. Id.

. Id.

. Id.

. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center. State Assessment for Biomass Resources: Alabama Potential Biofuel Use. Accessed July 21, 2009.

Oklahoma State University Experts Discuss Potential of Sweet Sorghum Use in Ethanol Production (10/22)

With demand growing for ethanol produced from sources other than corn, researchers at Oklahoma State University said Wednesday (10/21) that state agriculture producers could someday grow sweet sorghum or switchgrass as cash crops. Division scientists and engineers from Oklahoma State University’s Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources spoke during a "biofuels field day" at the University's South Central Research Station in Chickasha about the potential of crops that could be grown by Oklahoma farmers for use in ethanol production. The interest in such crops stems in part from the nation's renewable fuel standard, which ensures demand for ethanol. In 2007, the Energy and Independence Security Act passed by Congress called for 11.1 billion gallons of renewable fuel to be blended into gasoline this year, with that number rising to 36 billion gallons by 2022.


Kauai Advancing on Energy (10/16)

Pacific West Energy's proposed biomass-to-electricity plant on Kauai would help reduce Hawaii's reliance on foreign oil while keeping sugar cane cultivation alive on the Garden Isle, project observers say. Meanwhile, the company's planned 15-million-gallons-a-year sugar ethanol plant is on track to be the first in-state supplier of the gasoline additive. And that's not even factoring in Pacific West's intention to produce sugar for food and rum-making on Kauai, or a potential demonstration project for making ethanol directly from woody plants. "I think there's a tremendous amount of goodness in there for Kauai and the state," Ted Peck, energy administrator for the state Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, said of PacWest's ongoing work to bring its $135-million plan to fruition.



Ethanol Revival: Murphy Purchases 110 Mgy Corn Ethanol Plant in North Dakota for $92 Million (10/5)

In North Dakota, more signs of an ethanol revival appeared with the purchase of the 110 Mgy ethanol plant in Hankinson by Murphy Oil. Murphy, which paid $92 million in the form of nonrecourse debt for the plant, said that it will invest $15 million in working capital to restart the plant, which debuted in July 2008 but went idle last October due to industry economic conditions. Murphy becomes the third oil companyâ€"after Valero and Sunocoâ€"to purchase idle ethanol plants. “Given the current ethanol mandates and our subsequent blending needs, having more of a presence in the supply chain better balances our business,” said David Wood, chief executive and president of the company.


Florida Becomes Biofuels Start-up Incubator (9/17)

Florida Governor Charlie Crist touted his state’s investment in biofuels and renewable energy development during his speech to attendees at the 2009 Farm to Fuel Summit, held July 29â€"31 in Orlando, Florida. According to Crist, Florida has awarded more than $43 million in grants for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects since 2006, of which more than $23 million has been awarded to bioenergy projects. An E10 mandate will go into effect in 2010 and second-generation biofuels will be a major part of an integrated solution for meeting Florida’s energy needs, according to Crist. The state is currently funding research related to the production of ethanol from feedstocks such as sorghum and citrus waste.



Oklahoma Researchers Look for Cash in the Switchgrass (9/9)

Watching grass grow is tedious, but researchers in the Oklahoma Panhandle say they'll stare at their switchgrassâ€"all 1,000 acres of it until they know whether they've found a commercially viable source of biofuel. The site is billed as the largest such project in the world as scientists try to determine if making ethanol from switchgrass is cost-effective. The goal is to determine whether small-scale experiments of using the tall, thin plant native to the Great Plains to make ethanol can be duplicated on a large scale and if so, whether farmers and others involved in its production could make a profit. […]The $2.2-million experiment, a project of the Oklahoma Bioenergy Center that is being led by the Ardmore-based Noble Foundation, began last year with the planting of switchgrass on three fields near Guymon, a town 100 miles north of Amarillo, Texas. The grass will help feed a biorefinery planned in nearby southwest Kansas.


Cape Company Taps Pond Scum Power (8/5)

Dealing with pond scum in Massachusetts’ Cape Cod region could prove to be a financial windfall. Plankton Power, a Wellfleet-based alternative-energy company, has joined forces with military, government, industry, and research organizations to establish an algae farm and biorefinery on five acres of the Massachusetts Military Reservation. The Cape Cod Algae Biorefinery is expected to cost $20 million and has the potential to create hundreds of jobs, while providing the Cape with an alternative to burning fossil fuels. This initiative is supported by the Regional Technology Development Corp. of Cape Cod, the Massachusetts National Guard, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Marine Biological Laboratory, and the Cape Cod Commission. "What a lot of people don't realize is the Cape is one of the best algae resources in the world," said Curtis Felix, CEO of Plankton Power.


Iowa Scientists Innovate with Biofuels (7/30)

Iowa is one of the nation's leaders in the production of renewable fuels, and researchers at the Renewable Energy Group’s new Research Center in Ames are working to grow the industry. Scientists in the lab are converting everyday products into fuel. Most people appreciate coffee beans when they're freshly brewed and served hot first thing in the morning, but those same coffee beans could one day fuel cars. It's one of the many everyday products that workers at the lab are converting into biodiesel […] Researchers said their challenge is to find a way to make the alternative feedstocks viable.


A Shift from Corn to the Cob (7/23)

Ghana Gets Jatropha Biodiesel (10/26)

Jatropha is fast-proving the gem of the biodiesel feedstocks, and now one African producer has manufactured its first batch of the renewable fuel. Biofuel Africa, based in Ghana, has produced 10 tons of biodiesel, about 50 barrels from its plantations in its home country. The production was realized from 650 hectares of the plant, from one-year-old seeds. The vegetable oil produced from jatropha can be used without any modifications to directly run vehicles and machines in Ghana because of the climate.


Woody Biomass Power Plant Proposed for Wales (10/12)

Wales, U.K.-based Anglesey Aluminum Metals has submitted an application for approval of a 299-megawatt biomass power plant to be located near the company’s aluminum smelter and possibly power it. If approved, the plant would consume about 2.4 million tons of woody biomass, such as wood chips, pellets or agricultural residues, a year. Anglesey Aluminum hopes to commence basic construction in early 2011 with a three-year construction period. Currently, the company is going through the appropriate planning applications and engineering feasibilities. The energy could be used to power the company’s smelter or be sold to the grid. Anglesey relies now on power from the Wylfa nuclear power plant, which is scheduled to close in 2010.


Monsanto Forecasts Africa to Increase Biotech Crop Planting (10/9)

Monsanto Co., the world’s biggest seed producer, expects African countries to increase planting of genetically modified crops to boost food security and economic development as the region is affected by climate change. Burkina Faso plans to double the area planted with the company’s insect-resistant cotton next year from 129,000 hectares (318,766 acres) this year, Natalie DiNicola, director at Monsanto’s public policy and sustainable yield division, said in an interview. Corn modified to tolerate drought may be introduced to the sub-Saharan region by 2017, she said.


German Bioethanol Consumption Jumps by 61% (9/17)

Germany has seen a huge increase in bioethanol consumption in the first half of 2009. According to German bioethanol association BDBE, bioethanol consumption leapt to 453,000 tonnes in the first half of 2009, up 61 percent on the year-earlier period. The increase in consumption was largely caused by the German government’s program of raising compulsory blending of biofuels with fossil fuels to protect the environment. Germany now permits a petrol grade with 5-percent bioethanol content called E5. Seventy-three percent of German bioethanol consumption is now concentrated on E5 petrol grades. About 63 percent of German production from January to August 2009 used grain as a feedstock, 33 percent used sugar-based products, and the rest used a range of feedstocks.


Need to Reduce Reliance on Petrochemicals Stimulates Southeast Asian Bioethanol Market, Finds Frost & Sullivan (9/8)

The Southeast Asian bioethanol market is brimming with opportunities following the recent industry growth, rising number of entrants, and intense competition for best market positioning. The expansion of current producers, backed by the influx of new participants, has dramatically increased local production over the last three to seven years. The governments have also laid strong emphasis on biobased fuels to lower dependency on petrochemicals, assuring the Southeast Asian market of steady demand in future.


Biodiesel: Next Big Thing in Malaysia (8/3)

"Malaysia Truly Asia" is probably the most recognized national slogan in the marketing world of tourism. But Malaysia is also known for something else that not only benefits its national agenda, but can also help with the environment: biodiesel. "Biodiesel has a very promising prospect for the future as an alternative energy source and it's renewable," Malaysian Ambassador Dato' Ramlan Bin Ibrahim told The Korea Herald. Malaysia currently accounts for 41 percent of world palm oil production and 47 percent of world exports. As one of the biggest producers and exporters of palm oil and palm oil products, Malaysia has an important role to play in fulfilling the growing global need for oils.


E.U. Nations Slap Duties on U.S. Biodiesel: Diplomat (7/7)

European Union nations decided on July 7 to impose antidumping duties on U.S. biodiesel imports, which are suspected to be heavily subsidized, an E.U. diplomat said Tuesday. The proposal, by the European Commission, was adopted by the 27-country bloc's finance ministers at a meeting in Brussels, the diplomat said, on condition of anonymity. The duties, enforced as of July 12, range from €23 to €41 per 100 kilograms (160 pounds) and would last for up to five years. The stakes are high as biodiesel represents around 80 percent of Europe’s total production of biofuels, which have become an important pillar of the European Union’s efforts to fight global warming. U.S. biodiesel accounts for most of this fuel imported into the European Union




Bill #

Senator/Date Introduced




Rep Pastor, Ed [AZ-4] (introduced 7/13/2009)

Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010. Making appropriations for energy and water development and related agencies for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2010, and for other purposes.

10/15/2009: Cleared for White House.


Rep Crowley, Joseph [NY-7] (introduced 7/13/2009)

Affordable Food and Fuel for America Act. To reduce and eliminate the tax credit for alcohol fuel mixtures and the tariff on imported ethanol.

7/13/2009: Referred to House committee. Status: Referred to the House Committee on Ways and Means.


Rep Schauer, Mark H. [MI-7] (introduced 7/16/2009)

American Commercial Ethanol Fairness Act of 2009. To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to allow a credit against income tax for the use of ethanol in tetra ethyl ortho silicate (TEOS) production.

7/16/2009: Referred to House committee. Status: Referred to the House Committee on Ways and Means.


Rep Bilbray, Brian P. [CA-50] (introduced 7/31/2009)

To amend the Clean Air Act to include algae-based biofuel in the renewable fuel program and amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to include algae-based biofuel in the cellulosic biofuel producer credit.

7/31/2009: Referred to House committee. Status: Referred to the Committee on Ways and Means, and in addition to the Committee on Energy and Commerce, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned.


Rep Teague, Harry [NM-2] (introduced 7/31/2009)

Biofuel Engineering Training Act.  To direct the Secretary of Energy to provide for the establishment of accreditation standards relating to biofuel engineering, to provide support for undergraduate and graduate degree programs that create the engineering skills necessary to support biofuel production, and for other purposes.

8/5/2009: Referred to House subcommittee. Status: Referred to the Subcommittee on Energy and Environment.


Sen Snowe, Olympia J. (introduced 8/6/2009)

Cleaner, Secure, and Affordable Thermal Energy Act. A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to allow a credit for the conversion of heating using oil fuel to using natural gas or biomass feedstocks, and for other purposes.

8/6/2009: Referred to Senate committee. Status: Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance.


Sen Collins, Susan M. (introduced 9/14/2009)

A bill to require the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to satisfy certain conditions before issuing to producers of mid-level ethanol blends a waiver from certain requirements under the Clean Air Act, and for other purposes.

9/14/2009: Referred to Senate committee. Status: Read twice and referred to the Committee on Environment and Public Works.


Rep Berkley, Shelley [NV-1] (introduced 10/7/2009)

Water Efficiency via Carbon Harvesting and Restoration (WECHAR) Act of 2009. To establish loan guarantee programs to develop biochar technology using excess plant biomass, to establish biochar demonstration projects on public land, and for other purposes.

10/13/2009: Referred to House subcommittee. Status: Referred to the Subcommittee on Energy and Environment.




DOE Selects Five Biofuels Projects to Receive up to $21 Million in Funding


U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced that up to $21 million will be made available for the selection of five projects that will develop supply systems to handle and deliver high tonnage biomass feedstocks for cellulosic biofuels production.


  • AGCO Corporation of Duluth, GA (up to $5 million) will seek to demonstrate the viability of the densified, large square bale (LSB) as a least-cost, near-term means for supplying high tonnage biomass feedstocks to cellulosic biofuel processors.
  • Auburn University of Auburn, Alabama (up to $4.9 million) will work with leading producers of forest biomass for energy in Alabama to design and demonstrate a high productivity system to harvest, process, and transport woody biomass from southern pine plantations.
  • FDC Enterprises Inc. of Columbus, Ohio (up to $4.9 million) will primarily target Abengoa Bioenergy’s cellulosic biorefinery, which is currently under development in Hugoton, Kansas.
  • Genera Energy, LLC of Knoxville, Tennessee (up to $4.9 million) will supply low-moisture switchgrass with an efficient bulk-format system that maximizes automated conveyance and handling.
  • The SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry of Syracuse, New York (up to $1.3 million) plans to build on existing collaborative efforts among the project partners to develop, test, and deploy a single-pass cut-and-chip harvester combined with a handling, transportation, and storage system that is effective and efficient in a range of different short-rotation wood crops (SRWC) production systems throughout North America.


Award Total:

$21 million

Sponsoring Office:

U.S. Department of Energy





DOE Awards POET $6.85 Million for Cellulosic Ethanol


The funds will be used to develop the feedstock infrastructure for cellulosic ethanol production. POET will work with equipment manufacturers to help speed the process of getting cob-harvesting technology into fields around Emmetsburg and will incentivize early adopters of cob harvesting.



Award Total:

$6.85 million

Sponsoring Office:

U.S. Department of Energy





EPA Awards Grant to SDSU Students


The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has awarded South Dakota State University students with a $10,000 grant to help develop a recyclable catalyst for biodiesel production using waste grease, recycled oil and potentially algae.


South Dakota State University

Award Total:


Sponsoring Office:

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency





DOE Awards AE Biofuels and Pearson Fuels $6.9 Million to Build and Supply E85 Stations in California


AE Biofuels, Inc., a global vertically integrated biofuels company, and Pearson Fuels, an alternative fuels provider, today announced that they have been awarded a $6.9 grant from the U.S. Department of Energy through its Clean Cities program.


AE Biofuels and Pearson Fuels

Award Total:

$6.9 million

Sponsoring Office:

U.S. Department of Energy





Transformational Energy Research Projects Win $151 Million in Funding


The Department of Energy today announced major funding for 37 ambitious research projects - including some that could allow intermittent energy sources like wind and solar to provide a steady flow of power, or use bacteria to produce automotive fuel from sunlight, water and carbon dioxide. The $151 million in funding is being awarded through the Department's recently-formed Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy ("ARPA-E").


See link below for full list

Award Total:

$151 million

Sponsoring Office:

U.S. Department of Energy





Hazardous Fuels Woody Biomass Utilization Grants


The U.S. Forest Service, State and Private Forestry, Technology Marketing Unit, located at the Forest Products Laboratory, requests proposals for projects that increase the use of woody biomass that is removed during hazardous fuels treatment projects on both public and private forestlands.

Government Agency:

U.S. Department of Agriculture


November 20, 2009   



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